Stanley Wolpert, the famous British writer and biographer has rightly appreciated the vision of Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, “Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation state. Muhammad Ali Jinnah did all three”. Yes credit goes to Jinnah for carrying out a great freedom struggle against heavy odds that too in the wake of stiff resistance from British Indian government and the Hindu Congress of Gandhi Ji and Jawaharlal Nehru, who stood united for freedom of India under a constitution for United India (Akhand Bharat) thus making Jinnah’s task very difficult for carving out a nation state for the Muslims. As a matter of fact, if any one tries to trace the historical background of Pakistan Movement, the Jinnah-Iqbal confidential correspondence of 1936/1937 (13 confidential letters written by Allama Dr. Muhammad Iqbal to Jinnah) comes to fore as the most significant factor for Jinnah’s selection of the venue of Lahore for holding the history-making 27th session of All India Muslim League on 23 March, 1940. The following important excerpts of confidential correspondence between Jinnah and Iqbal did reflect the vision of great Pakistan Movement:

  1. Allama Iqbal in his confidential letter addressed to Jinnah on 28 May, 1937 wrote, “Thank you very much for your letter which reached me in due course. I am glad to hear that you will bear in mind that I wrote to you about the changes in the constitution and program of the League. I have no doubt that you fully realize the gravity of the situation as far as Muslim India is concerned…The atheistic socialism of Jawaharlal Nehru is not likely to receive much response from the Muslims. The question therefore is: how is it possible to solve the problem of Muslim poverty…After a long and careful study of Islamic laws, I have come to the conclusion that if this system of Law is properly understood and applied, at last the right to subsistence is secured to every body. But the enforcement and development of the Shariat of Islam is impossible in this country without a free Muslim state or states…But as I have said above, in order to make it possible for Muslim India to solve the problems, it is necessary to redistribute the country and to provide one or more Muslim states with absolute majorities. Don’t you think that the time for such a demand has already arrived?”
  2. On 21 June, 1937, Iqbal wrote to Jinnah, “During the last few months there has been a series of Hindu-Muslim riots…I have carefully studied the whole situation and believe that the real cause of these events are neither religious nor economic. It is purely political, i.e., the desire of the Sikhs and Hindus to intimidate Muslims even in the Muslim majority provinces. And the new constitution (for united India) is such that even in the Muslim majority provinces, the Muslims are made entirely dependent on non-Muslims…In the Hindu majority provinces, the Hindus can ignore Muslims, altogether. In Muslim majority provinces, the Muslims are made entirely dependent on Hindus. I have no doubt in my mind that this constitution (for united India) is a calculated attempt to do infinite harm to the Indian Muslims…To my mind the new constitution with its idea of single Indian federation is completely hopeless. A separate federation of Muslim provinces is the only course by which we can secure a peaceful India and save Muslims from the dominance of non-Muslims, hence why should not the Muslims of North-West India and Bengal be considered as nations entitled to self determination just as other nations in India and out-side India are…Personally I think that the Muslims of North-West and Bengal ought to ignore Muslim minority provinces. It will therefore be better to hold the coming session of the League in the Punjab, and not in a Muslim minority province. I think you should seriously consider the advisability of holding the coming session in Lahore. The interest in the All India Muslim League is rapidly growing in the Punjab, and the holding of coming session in Lahore is likely to give a fresh political awakening to the Punjab Muslims.”


The aforementioned confidential correspondence of Jinnah-Iqbal finally came to an end with the death of Allama Iqbal on 21 April, 1938. However, Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah did schedule the 27th session of All India Muslim League at Lahore on 23 march, 1940, in which Lahore resolution was adopted which is popularly known in history as Pakistan Resolution. Dr. Riaz Ahmed has summed up the perspective of Pakistan Resolution in following words, which inter-alia carried the vision of Jinnah-Iqbal correspondence, “Resolved that it is the considered view of the session of All-India Muslim League that no constitution plan would be workable in this country or acceptable to the Muslims unless it is designed on the following basic principles, viz., that geographically contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be so constituted with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary, that the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority, as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India , should be grouped to constitute independent states in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign”. In fact, the ‘Lahore Resolution’ which was portrayed as Pakistan Resolution by the Hindu press rejuvenated the desire among Muslims of the Indian sub-continent to aspire for an independent home land under the undisputed and able leadership of Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, hence Pakistan came into being on 14/15 August, 1947.

Pakistan Zindabad.

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